Publications

This page contains a list of publications relating to the Informed Health Choices project.

Newsletters

Informed Health Choices Newsletter 2023

Informed Health Choices Newsletter 2022

Informed Health Choices Newsletter 2021

Informed Health Choices Newsletter 2020

Informed Health Choices Newsletter 2019

 

Key Concepts

Most recent version

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key Concepts for Informed Health Choices: a framework for enabling people to think critically about health claims (Version 2022). IHC Working Paper; 2022.
Translations: Spanish (2018 version), Arabic (2017 version)

Informed choices beyond health

Aronson JK, Barends E, Boruch R, Brennan M, Chalmers I, Chislett J, et al. Key concepts for making informed choices. Nature. 2019;572(7769):303-6. Pre-print (PDF)

Muller L-M, Morris A, Sharples JM, Chislett J, Rose N, Chalmers H. How to assess claims about cognition and learning: The ACE Concepts. Impact J R Coll Teach. 2020;18:19.

Stewart R, Aronson, J.K., Barends, E., Boruch, R., Brennan, M., Chislett, J., Cunliffe-Jones, P., Maynard, B.,, Oxman M, Pullin, A., Randall, N., Sharples, J., Stott, J., Vale, L. Lessons from working across fields to develop a framework for informed choices. Research for All. 2022;6(1).

Informed health choices essays

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 1.1: Assumptions that treatments are safe or effective can be misleading. J R Soc Med. 2022;115(9):354-9.

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 1.2: Seemingly logical assumptions about research can be misleading. J R Soc Med. 2022;115(10):408-11.

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 1.3: Seemingly logical assumptions about treatments can be misleading. J R Soc Med. 2022;115(11):448-50.

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 1.4: Trust based on the source of a claim alone can be misleading. J R Soc Med. 2022;115(12):479-81.

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 2.1: Comparisons of treatments should be fair. J R Soc Med. 2023;116(1):21-6.

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 2.2: Reviews of the effects of treatments should be fair. J R Soc Med. 2023;116(2):76-8.

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 2.3: Descriptions of effects should clearly reflect the size of the effects. J R Soc Med. 2023;116(3):113–5.

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 2.4: Descriptions of effects should reflect the risk of being misled by the play of chance. J R Soc Med. 2023;116(4):144-7.

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 3.1: Evidence should be relevant. J R Soc Med. 2022:1410768221140768.

Oxman A, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key concepts for informed health choices. 3.2: Expected advantages should outweigh expected disadvantages. J R Soc Med. 2022:1410768221140786.

Development of the Key Concepts

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A. Key Concepts for Informed Health Choices: Where’s the evidence? F1000Res. 2023, 11:890.

Oxman AD, Martínez Garcia L. Comparison of the Informed Health Choices Key Concepts Framework to other frameworks relevant to teaching and learning how to think critically about health claims and choices: a systematic review. F1000Res. 2020;9:164.   (See also protocol)

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Informed Health Choices Group. Key Concepts for assessing claims about treatment effects and making well-informed treatment choices. F1000Res. 2019;7:1784.

Chalmers I, Oxman AD, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Ryan-Vig S, Pannell S, Sewankambo N, et al. Key Concepts for Informed Health Choices: a framework for helping people learn how to assess treatment claims and make informed choices. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2018;23(1):29-33.

Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Nsangi A, Glenton C, Lewin S, et al. Key concepts that people need to understand to assess claims about treatment effects. J Evid Based Med. 2015;8(3):112-25.

Agaba JJ, Chesire F, Mugisha M, Nandi P, Njue J, Nsangi A, et al. Prioritisation of Informed Health Choices (IHC) Key Concepts to be included in lower-secondary school resources: a consensus study. PLoS One. 2023;18(4):e0267422.  (See also protocol)

Nsangi A, Semakula D, Oxman AD, Sewankambo NK. Teaching children in low-income countries to assess claims about treatment effects: prioritization of key concepts. J Evid Based Med. 2015;8(4):173-80.

Semakula D, Nsangi A, Oxman AD, Sewankambo NK. Priority setting for resources to improve the understanding of information about claims of treatment effects in the mass media. J Evid Based Med. 2015;8(2):84-90.

Earlier versions of the Key Concepts

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Dahlgren A, Informed Health Choices Group. Key Concepts for assessing claims about treatment effects and making well-informed treatment choices (Version 2019). IHC Working Paper; 2019.

Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Informed Health Choices Group. Key Concepts for assessing claims about treatment effects and making well-informed treatment choices (Version 2018). IHC Working Paper; 2018.

Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Chalmers I, Oxman AD, Informed Health Choices Group. Assessing claims about treatment effects: key concepts that people need to understand (Version 2017). IHC Working Paper; 2017.

Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Chalmers I, Oxman AD, Informed Health Choices Group. Assessing claims about treatments effects: key concepts that people need to understand (Version 2016). IHC Working Paper; 2016.

 

Educational resources

Primary school

Oxman M, Rosenbaum S, Nsangi A, Semakula D, Morelli A, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, et al. The Health Choices Book: Learning to think carefully about treatments. A health science book for primary school children. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Public Health; 2016.

Oxman M, Rosenbaum S, Nsangi A, Semakula D, Morelli A, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, et al. Teachers’ Guide for The Health Choices Book: Learning to think carefully about treatments. A health science book for primary school children. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Public Health; 2016.

Secondary school

Rosenbaum S, Moberg J, Oxman M, Oxman AD, Chelagat F, Mugisha M, et al. Be Smart about your Health. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Public Health; 2022.

Podcasts and animations

The Informed Health Choices Group. The Health Choices Book. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Public Health; 2022.

Ringle VA. Parents Making Informed Health Choices. Miami: University of Miami; 2020.

The Informed Healthcare Choices Group. The Health Choices Programme. Kampala: Makerere University; 2016.

Other

Castle JC, Chalmers I, Atkinson P, Badenoch D, Oxman AD, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, et al. Learning Resources Database. Teachers of Evidence-Based Health Care; 2017.

Evans I, Thornton H, Chalmers I, Glasziou P. Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare. 2nd edition. London: Pinter & Martin; 2011.

Woloshin S, Schwartz LM, Welch G. Know Your Chances. Understanding Health Statistics. Berkeley: University of California Press; 2008.

 

Development of educational resources

Context analyses and reviews to inform resource development

Chesire F, Ochieng M, Mugisha M, Ssenyonga R, Oxman M, Nsangi A, et al. Contextualizing critical thinking about health using digital technology in secondary schools in Kenya: a qualitative analysis. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2022;8(1):227.  (See also protocol)

Ssenyonga R, Sewankambo NK, Mugagga SK, Nakyejwe E, Chesire F, Mugisha M, et al. Learning to think critically about health using digital technology in Ugandan lower secondary schools: a contextual analysis. PLoS One. 2022;17(2):e0260367.

Mugisha M, Uwitonze AM, Chesire F, Senyonga R, Oxman M, Nsangi A, et al. Teaching critical thinking about health using digital technology in lower secondary schools in Rwanda: A qualitative context analysis. PLoS One. 2021;16(3):e0248773.

Oxman AD, Dahlgren A, Garcia Marti S, Kaseje M, Nsangi A, Rosenbaum S, et al. The effects of teaching strategies on learning to think critically in primary and secondary schools: protocol for an overview of systematic reviews. IHC Working Paper. 2019.

Krause LK, Schwartz L, Woloshin S, Oxman AD. Interactive tools to teach the public to be critical consumers of information about health care: What’s out there? Abstracts of the 19th Cochrane Colloquium, Madrid, Spain, 2011, 157.

Development of educational resources

Rosenbaum S, Moberg J, Chesire F, Mugisha M, Ssenyonga R, et al. Teaching critical thinking about health information and choices in secondary schools: human-centred design of digital resources. F1000Research. 2023 May 11;12:481.  (See also protocol)

Deliv C, Devane D, Putnam E, Healy P, Hall A, Rosenbaum S, et al. Development of a video-based evidence synthesis knowledge translation resource: Drawing on a user-centred design approach. Digital Health. 2023;9:1-11.

Oxman M, Habib L, Jamtvedt G, Kalsnes B, Molin M. Using claims in the media to teach essential concepts for evidence-based healthcare. BMJ Evid Based Med. 2021;26(5):234-6.

Nsangi A, Semakula D, Rosenbaum SE, Oxman AD, Oxman M, Morelli A, et al. Development of the informed health choices resources in four countries to teach primary school children to assess claims about treatment effects: a qualitative study employing a user-centred approach. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2020;6:18.

Nsangi A, Semakula D, Rosenbaum S, Oxman M, Morelli A, Oxman AD, et al. Development of the Informed Health Choices resources to teach primary school children to assess claims about treatment effects in four countries. IHC Working Paper; 2017.

Semakula D, Nsangi A, Oxman M, Rosenbaum SE, Oxman AD, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, et al. Development of mass media resources to improve the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess the trustworthiness of claims about the effects of treatments: a human-centred design approach. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2019;5:155.

Semakula D, Nsangi A, Oxman M, Rosenbaum S, Oxman AD, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, et al. Development of mass media resources to improve the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess the trustworthiness of claims about the benefits and harms of treatments. IHC Working Paper; 2018.

Moberg J, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Treweek S, Badenoch D, Layfield R, Harbour R, et al. The plain language Glossary of Evaluation Terms for Informed Treatment choices (GET-IT) at www. getitglossary.org. Research for All. 2018;2(1):106–21.

Moberg J, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Treweek S, Badenoch D, Layfield R, Harbour R, et al. A plain language Glossary of Evaluation Terms for In-formed Treatment choices (GET-IT) at www. getitglossary.org. IHC Working Paper. 2017.

Castle JC, Chalmers I, Atkinson P, Badenoch D, Oxman AD, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, et al. Establishing a library of resources to help people understand key concepts in assessing treatment claims-The “Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library” (CARL). PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0178666.

 

Evaluation of educational resources

Systematic reviews

Chesire F, Mugisha M, Ssenyonga R, Rose CJ, Nsangi A, Kaseje M, et al. Effects of the Informed Health Choices secondary school intervention: A prospective meta-analysis. J Evid Based Med. 2023:1-11. 

Oxman M, Oxman AD, Fretheim A, Lewin S. Participants’ and investigators’ experiences and views of potential adverse effects of an educational intervention: Protocol for a qualitative evidence synthesis. IHC Working Paper. 2023.

Verdugo-Paiva F, Novillo F, Peña J, Ávila-Oliver C, Rada G. Screening (partial report). Update of: Educational interventions to improve people’s understanding of key concepts in assessing the effects of health interventions. Epistemonikos Foundation. 2023.

Oxman M, Larun L, Pérez Gaxiola G, Alsaid D, Qasim A, Rose CJ, et al. Quality of information in news media reports about the effects of health interventions: Systematic review and meta-analyses. F1000Res. 2022;10:433.

Cusack L, Del Mar CB, Chalmers I, Gibson E, Hoffmann TC. Educational interventions to improve people’s understanding of key concepts in assessing the effects of health interventions: a systematic review. Syst Rev. 2018;7(1):68.

Nordheim LV, Gundersen MW, Espehaug B, Guttersrud Ø, Flottorp S. Effects of school-based educational interventions for enhancing adolescents abilities in critical appraisal of health claims: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161485.

Randomised trials

Chesire F, Kaseje M, Ochieng M, Ngatia B, Mugisha M, Ssenyonga R, et al. Effects of the informed health choices secondary school intervention on the ability of students in Kenya to think critically about health choices: A cluster-randomized trial. J Evid Based Med. 2023

Mugisha M, Nyirazinyoye L, Simbi CMC, Chesire F, Senyonga R, Oxman M, et al. Effects of the Informed Health Choices secondary school intervention on the ability of students in Rwanda to think critically about health choices: A cluster-randomized trial. J Evid Based Med. 2023

Ssenyonga R, Oxman AD, Nakyejwe E, Chesire F, Mugisha M, Nsangi A, et al. Use of the informed health choices educational intervention to improve secondary students’ ability to think critically about health interventions in Uganda: A cluster-randomized trial. J Evid Based Med. 2023

Cusack L, Jones M, Desha L, Hoffmann TC. Teaching Australian high school students to think critically about health claims: a cluster randomized trial. Health Educ Res. 2023.

Nsangi A, Semakula D, Oxman AD, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Oxman M, Rosenbaum S, et al. Effects of the Informed Health Choices primary school intervention on the ability of children in Uganda to assess the reliability of claims about treatment effects: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017;390(10092):374-88.  (See also protocol)

Nsangi A, Semakula D, Oxman AD, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Oxman M, Rosenbaum S, et al. Effects of the Informed Health Choices primary school intervention on the ability of children in Uganda to assess the reliability of claims about treatment effects, 1-year follow-up: a cluster-randomised trial. Trials. 2020;21(1):27.

Semakula D, Nsangi A, Oxman AD, Oxman M, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Rosenbaum S, et al. Effects of the Informed Health Choices podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about treatment effects: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017;390(10092):389-98.  (See also protocol)

Semakula D, Nsangi A, Oxman AD, Oxman M, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Rosenbaum S, et al. Effects of the Informed Health Choices podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess the trustworthiness of claims about treatment effects: one-year follow up of a randomised trial. Trials. 2020;21(1):187.

Process evaluations

Chesire F, Kaseje M, Ochieng M, Mugisha M, Ssenyonga R, Oxman M, et al. Effect of the Informed Health Choices digital secondary school resources on the ability of lower secondary students in Kenya to critically appraise health claims: protocol for a process evaluation. IHC Working Paper; 2022.

Mugisha M, Nyirazinyoye L, Oxman AD, Simbi CMC, Chesire F, Ssenyonga R, et al. Use of the Informed Health Choices digital resources for teaching lower secondary school students in Rwanda to think critically about health: protocol for a process evaluation. IHC Working Paper; 2022.

Ssenyonga R, Lewin S, Nakyejwe E, Nsangi A, Semakula D, Chesire F, et al. Informed heath choices intervention to teach secondary school adolescents in Uganda to assess claims about treatment effects: a process evaluation protocol. IHC Working Paper; 2022.

Nsangi A, Semakula D, Glenton C, Lewin S, Oxman AD, Oxman M, et al. Informed health choices intervention to teach primary school children in low-income countries to assess claims about treatment effects: process evaluation. BMJ Open. 2019;9(9):e030787.  (See also protocol)

Semakula D, Nsangi A, Oxman A, Glenton C, Lewin S, Rosenbaum S, et al. Informed Health Choices media intervention for improving people’s ability to critically appraise the trustworthiness of claims about treatment effects: a mixed-methods process evaluation of a randomised trial in Uganda. BMJ Open. 2019;9(12):e031510.  (See also protocol)

PhD dissertations and reports

Nsangi A. An educational intervention to enable children to assess claims about the benefits and harms of treatments. Oslo: Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo; 2020.

Semakula D. Improving critical thinking about treatment claims, evidence and choices. Development and evaluation of an intervention to improve the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to critically appraise the trustworthiness of claims about treatment effects and make informed health choices. Oslo: Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo; 2020.

Informed Healthcare Choices Group. Supporting informed healthcare choices in low-income countries – final report. 2018.

 

Translation and adaptation of educational resources

Guides

Rosenbaum S, Martinez Garcia L, Informed Health Choices Group. Guide for translating the Informed Health Choices school resources. IHC Working Paper. 2019.

Informed Health Choices Group. Guide for piloting the Informed Health Choices (IHC) school resources. IHC Working Paper; 2017.

Rosenbaum S, Martinez Garcia L, Informed Health Choices Group. Resource production guide for translating and adapting Informed Health Choices learning resources. IHC Working Paper. 2019.

Informed Health Choices Group. Guide for translating and adapting the Informed Health Choices (IHC) podcast. IHC Working Paper; 2017.

Translations and adaptations

Alderighi C, Sarah E. Rosenbaum, Celani MG, De Fiore R, Ambrosino F, Formoso G, et al. Feasibility of contextualizing the Informed Health Choices learning resources in Italy: protocol for a study in the North, Centre and South of Italy. Zenodo; 2023.

Jofra LS, Alonso-Coello P, Martínez EC, de Britos Marsal C, Gallego Iborra A, Niño de Guzman Quispe EP, et al. Piloting the informed health choices resources in Barcelona primary schools: A mixed methods study. PLoS One. 2023;18(7):e0288082.  (See also protocol)

Mugisha M, Uwase M, Manzi E, Ishimwe V, Habineza P, Mugisha E. A mobile application for teaching and learning critical thinking about health choices among youth in Rwanda: a digital tool for youth friendly center counsellors. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2022;298:29-33.

Alderighi C, Rasoini R, Formoso G, Celani MG, Rosenbaum SE. Feasibility of contextualizing the Informed Health Choices learning resources in Italy: A pilot study in a primary school in Florence. F1000Res. 2022;11:1167.

Balardin J, Antunes JN. Informed Health Choices primary school resources – Brazilian Portuguese translation process. IHC Working Paper; 2022.

Glynn D. Contextualising the Informed Health Choices (IHC) programme and resources for delivery in the Irish Primary School System. Research masters thesis. Galway: National University of Ireland; 2020.

Ringle VAM. Developing and testing the effects of an educational podcast to improve critical appraisal of healthcare claims. Doctoral dissertation. Miami: University of Miami; 2020.

Ikirezi A. A qualitative study exploring the suitability of Informed Health Choices resources translated into Kinyarwanda for use in primary schools: Case of Remera Protestant Primary School In Kigali City. Kigali: College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda; 2016.

Mugisha M. Piloting primary school teaching resources for informed health care choices in an urban school in Kigali, Rwanda: a qualitative study. Kigali: College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda; 2016.

Context analyses to inform adaptations

Martínez García L, Samsó Jofra L, Alonso-Coello P, Ansuategi E, Asso Mistral L, Ballesteros M, et al. Teaching and learning how to make informed health choices: Protocol for a context analysis in Spanish primary schools. F1000Res. 2021;10:312.

Lund HM, Mathisen PE, Rekkavik ME, Voll E. Teaching critical thinking about health claims: market analysis for Norwegian primary and lower secondary school. IHC Working Paper; 2018.

 

Claim Evaluation Tools

Manual

Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Oxman AD, Chalmers I. Manual for preparing a test or questionnaire based on the Claim Evaluation Tools database. IHC Working Paper. 2019.

Surveys

Pivac I, Markić J, Poklepović Peričić T, Aranza D, Marušić A. Evaluating health claim assessment skills of parents with preschool children: A cross-sectional study using Informed Health Choices Claim Evaluation Tool. J Glob Health. 2023;13:04156.

Dahlgren A, Furuseth-Olsen K, Rose CJ, Oxman AD. The Norwegian public’s ability to assess treatment claims: results of a cross-sectional study of critical health literacy. F1000Research. 2021;9:179.

Oxman AD, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Garratt A, Rosenbaum S. Understanding of key concepts relevant to assessing claims about treatment effects: a survey of Norwegian adults. IHC Working Paper. 2017.

Development and validation

Dahlgren A, Semakula D, Chesire F, Oxman AD, Mugisha M, Nakyejwe E, et al. Critical thinking about treatment effects in Eastern Africa: development and Rasch analysis of an assessment tool. F1000Res. 2023;12:887. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.132052.1

Hinneburg J, Gasteiger-Klicpera B, Kasper J, Lühnen J, Maitz K, Martens T, et al. Evaluating student’s ability to assess treatment claims: validating a German version of the Claim Evaluation Tools. BMC Public Health. 2023;23(1):262.

Nsangi A, Aranza D, Asiimwe R, Munaabi-Babigumira S, Nantongo J, Nordheim L, et al. Measuring lower secondary school students’ ability to assess claims about treatment effects: establishment of a standard for passing and mastery. BMJ Open. 2023;13:e066890.

Seifert S, Maitz K, Pendl D, Gasteiger-Klicpera B. [Is health literacy a subjective assessment or an objectively measurable competence? A comparison of different instruments to measure health literacy in relation to reading literacy and cognitive skills of adolescents]. Diagnostica. 2022;68(4):197-208.

Aranza D, Milavić B, Marusic A, Buzov M, Poklepović Peričić T. A cross-sectional study on adaptation and initial validation of a test to evaluate health claims among high school students: Croatian version. BMJ Open. 2021;11(8):e048754.

Wang Q, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Zhang J, Yu Y, Zhou Q, Yang N, et al. Evaluating people’s ability to assess treatment claims: Validating a test in Mandarin from Claim Evaluation Tools database. J Evid Based Med. 2019;12(2):140-6.

Pérez-Gaxiola G, Austvoll-Dahlgren A. [Psychometric validation of a questionnaire to measure the ability of the public to evaluate claims about treatments]. Gac Med Mex. 2018;154(4):480-95.

Davies A, Gerrity M, Nordheim L, Okebukola P, Opiyo N, Sharples J, et al. Measuring ability to assess claims about treatment effects: establishment of a standard for passing and mastery. IHC Working Paper; 2017.

Semakula D, Nsangi A, Oxman AD, Sewankambo NK, Guttersrud Ø, Austvoll-Dahlgren A. Measuring ability to assess claims about treatment effects in English and Luganda: evaluation of multiple-choice questions from the “Claim Evaluation Tools” database using Rasch modelling. IHC Working Paper; 2017.

Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Guttersrud O, Nsangi A, Semakula D, Oxman AD, Group IHC. Measuring ability to assess claims about treatment effects: a latent trait analysis of items from the ‘Claim Evaluation Tools’ database using Rasch modelling. BMJ Open. 2017;7(5):e013185.

Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Semakula D, Nsangi A, Oxman AD, Chalmers I, Rosenbaum S, et al. Measuring ability to assess claims about treatment effects: the development of the ‘Claim Evaluation Tools’. BMJ Open. 2017;7(5):e013184.

Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Nsangi A, Semakula D. Interventions and assessment tools addressing key concepts people need to know to appraise claims about treatment effects: a systematic mapping review. Syst Rev. 2016;5(1):215.

 

Commentaries

Alderighi C, Rasoini R. [The naked king in the pandemic: about the production and communication of scientific knowledge at the time of SARS-CoV-2]. Recenti Prog Med. 2020;111(7):398-401.

Sharples JM, Oxman AD, Mahtani KR, Chalmers I, Oliver S, Collins K, et al. Critical thinking in healthcare and education. BMJ. 2017;357:j2234.

Chalmers I. Explaining the unbiased creation of treatment comparison groups. Lancet. 2009;374(9702):1670-1.

Book Chapters

Alderighi C, Rasoini R. Informed health choices project: An international validated curriculum to disseminate critical health literacy to the public, starting from primary school-piloting activities in Italian primary schools. In: Guarcello E, Longo A, editors. School Children as Agents of Change: Raising up Critical Thinking and Judgement in the Early Years. London: Routledge; 2024. p. 173-82.

Keselman A, Smith CA, Wilson AJ, editors. Combating Online Health Misinformation: A Professional’s Guide to Helping the Public. Chapter 11: Teaching Young People to Think Critically about Health Claims and Choices (pre-print PDF). Rowman & Littlefield; 2022 Sep 10.

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